In late 2014, Emma Sulkowicz gained international attention when she started to carry a 50-pound mattress everywhere she went on the Columbia University campus in an effort to draw attention to the problem of sexual assault. Her action was part of a senior thesis project and protest piece called Mattress Performance (Carry that Weight). Sulkowicz initiated the performance after experiencing a sexual assault on campus and being forced to continue studying at the same institution as her assailant. Although her action did not lead to the assailant’s expulsion as hoped, it did raise awareness about the ongoing problem of campus sexual assault and how these assaults are frequently not taken seriously by school officials.
While Sulkowicz’s individual plight may be easy to ignore, recent statistics suggest that Sulkowicz is not alone. A 2015 study by the American Association of Universities, which surveyed over 150,000 students at 27 colleges and universities—making it the largest study of its kind to date—discovered that 27.2% of female college students have experienced unwanted sexual contact on campus by their senior year and nearly half have experienced unwanted penetration, attempted penetration or oral sex. Equally shocking is the study’s finding that only half the students surveyed believe that their school officials are “very or extremely likely” to conduct a “fair investigation” when complaints about unwanted sexual contact and sexual assault on campus are brought forward.
Given the high frequency of sexual violence on college and university campuses and lack of confidence in school officials, what can be done to prevent sexual assault on our campuses and what specific roles can students, educators, administrators and parents play in sexual assault prevention?
Dr. Alan Berkowitz
Dr. Alan Berkowitz is an independent consultant, licensed psychologist, educator, author, and nationally recognized expert on dating violence and bystander behavior. As a central figure in the development of Social Norms Theory, Dr. Berkowitz’s work as a researcher, psychologist and educator continues to draw attention to the problem of sexual assault and to empower men to take action against sexual violence.
Dr. Jill Hoxmeier
Assistant Professor of Physical Education and Public Health at Central Washington University. She holds a PhD in Public Health from Oregon State University and is a Certified Health Education Specialist. Dr. Hoxmeier has published widely on the topics of sexual assault and dating violence.
Cait holds a PhD in Education (York). Her essays, articles and reviews have been published in research journals across the United States and internationally. She also has over two decades of experience working as an educator. Cait has worked as a community educator, adult educator at the college level, and as a university professor, teaching courses and seminars at the undergraduate and graduate levels in education and the humanities.
How widespread is sexual assault among the student-age population?
Dr. Jill Hoxmeier, an Assistant Professor of Physical Education and Public Health at Central Washington University who has carried out extensive research on the issue of campus sexual assault and bystander behavior, emphasizes that the findings of the American Association of Universities Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct merely confirm what many students, educators and school officials have known for decades. “I think awareness and concern about sexual assault on college campuses greatly varies from institution to institution,” explains Dr. Hoxmeier, “but there is still very much a culture on many campuses that supports rape.”
There are a variety of factors that contribute to the problem of sexual assault on campuses, which include the use and misuse of alcohol among students and lack of understanding of what constitutes consent. “Young people also are not always in the practice of asking and looking for clear and enthusiastic consent when it comes to sexual activity,” Dr. Hoxmeier observes, “But this is something we need to foster.”
Dr. Hoxmeier’s perception that sexual assault is not only widespread but in some instances, supported by campus cultures is corroborated by the findings of the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault’s 2014 report Not Alone. Among other key findings, Not Alone reports:
- One and five students are sexually assaulted in college.
- In 75% to 80% of cases, the assailant is known to the victim (e.g., is an acquaintance or classmate).
- A high percentage of assaults are “incapacitated assaults” or assaults that occur when the victim is drugged, drunk, passed out or otherwise incapacitated.
- Most often the assault is never reported to authorities; only 2% of incapacitated assaults and 13% of forcible rapes are ever reported to either campus police or local law enforcers.
- Up to 40% of college survivors fear reprisal by their perpetrator.
- While men do report experiencing sexual assault on campus, the vast majority of victims are women and the vast majority of assailants are men.
Dr. Alan Berkowitz, a psychologist, educator and internationally recognized expert on sexual assault and sexual assault prevention, emphasizes that although the majority of assailants are men and the majority of victims are women, it is important to bear in mind that most men are not part of the problem:
Most men do not assault or take sexual advantage of women, but around 30-45% depending on the study, do, most infrequently or only once. However, within this group is a smaller group who we call “repeat offenders” or “serial perpetrators” who commit most of the assaults. Sexual assault prevention should focus on these men but not ignore the larger percentage who are also inappropriate and also not ignore the larger culture that enables or gives permission for men to assault.
While recent reports on sexual assault have focused on college and university campuses, there is reason to believe that the problem starts long before students ever arrive on campus. Sexual assault rates are reportedly just as high and even higher for high school students than they are for college- and university-age students. The US Department of Justice reports:
- 1 in 5 female high school students report having been physically and/or sexually abused by someone they are dating.
- 35.8% of sexual assaults occur between the ages of 12 and 17.
- Girls account for 82% of all juvenile victims of sexual assault.
- The majority of teen sexual assaults reported to law enforcement officials occur in familiar locations (e.g., the home of the victim or offender or the home of an mutual acquaintance).
- Teens 16 to 19 years of age were 3 ½ times more likely than the rest of the population to experience a rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault.
- For teens, online platforms are a major source of unwanted sexual contact; an estimated 13% of teen Internet users have received unwanted sexual solicitations while online.
How Can Educators and School Administrators Prevent Sexual Assault?
As reported by both the American Association of Universities and the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault, with few exceptions, educators and school administrators are falling short in the struggle to make our campuses safe places for women and men alike. An recent investigation by the Pulitzer Prize winning Center for Public Integrity concluded, “Students found ‘responsible’ for sexual assaults on campus often face little or no punishment from school judicial systems, while their victims’ lives are frequently turned upside down.”
As part of the heightened effort to respond to the crisis of campus-based sexual assault, the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault outlines a number of critical steps that institutions must take to lower and eventually eliminate sexual assault on campus. Among the Task Force’s key recommendations are the following:
Carry out a Campus Climate Survey
No school wants to draw attention to a problem, especially if it makes the school look like a potentially dangerous place to study. For this reason, many high schools, colleges and universities are reluctant to carry out campus climate surveys on sexual assault. Understanding the problem, however, is a critical part of addressing it. Among other benefits, carrying out a campus climate survey on sexual assault can help an institution:
- Gain insight into the campus community’s perceptions, knowledge and attitudes on the issue of sexual assault.
- Acquire an accurate picture of incident rates (assuming the survey is anonymous and widely distribute).
- Identify key problem areas on campus (e.g., are their particular locations, organizations, structure or traditions that appear to be implicitly or explicitly supporting the campus sexual assault problem).
- Track progress on the issue over time (e.g., carrying out a campus climate survey each year can help an institution identify if their efforts to prevent campus sexual assaults is in fact working).
To help institutions get started, the Not Alone campaign has prepared a comprehensive toolkit that outlines how to effectively carry out a campus climate survey on sexual assault.
While carrying out a campus climate survey may be important, as Dr. Hoxmeier emphasizes, it can’t stop there: “Awareness is really only the first step, albeit an important one, but after awareness and recognition that sexual assault is, indeed, a major public health issue that disproportionately affects college women, programs and policies have to be implemented to prevent and intervene to help make campuses safer.”
Adopt Best Practices for Sexual Assault Prevention
A recent study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concluded the best way to prevent sexual assault is through ongoing and rigorous awareness training programs that address the root causes of sexual assault. In other words, rather than one-off workshops, it is important to offer sustained education on the issue and to make everyone aware of the source of the problem (e.g., embedded power relations between men and women and sexist stereotypes and assumption).
Dozens of recent studies on campus sexual assault support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s position that it’s essential to get to the root of the problem—the assumptions, attitudes, misconceptions and stereotypes that enable sexual assault to persist—and to further avoid the tendency to put the onus solely on college-age women to modify their behaviors to avoid potentially risky situations. As Dr. Kristen N. Jozkowski, who teachers in the College of Education and Health Professions at the University of Arkansas, emphasizes:
The underlying message that students receive from many prevention programs is that a woman should avoid certain behaviors and situations because of how they may influence others’ decisions regarding her consent (e.g., take-away messages such as women need to watch how much they have to drink because they may do something, like go home with a guy, that they would not do when sober and this could result in sexual assault). Yet, there seems to be a lack of emphasis on the importance of informing men about their roles (e.g., telling men that alcohol could cloud judgment and they need to take extra measures to ensure consent). Furthermore, little, if any, attention is given to addressing the social dynamics that encourage drinking alcohol, casual sexual encounters without communication, gender-scripted sexual behavior roles, and lack of clear communication of consent.
The first step for any institution is to develop a strategic plan; for advice on how to get started, consult the Not Alone factsheet on prevention strategies.
Make “No Means No” or “Yes Means Yes” a Mandatory Part of Your School’s Curriculum
For many years, colleges and universities across North America promoted “No Means No” campaigns. In recent years, however, the “No Means No” approach has been subject to critique, with some skeptics pointing out that it places the onus on victims to verbalize their resistance. As a consequence, there is also a perception that the “No Means No” approach may inadvertently send out a message to assailants that unless the individual they are aggressing says no, they are legally not doing anything wrong, no matter how aggressive their actions. In other words, under the “No Means No,” silence can too easily be misinterpreted as consent. For this reason, there’s a growing movement to move across campuses and in other contexts to swap “No Means No” for “Yes Means Yes.” “Yes Means Yes” is not only more positive but also broadens the definition of what can be construed as sexual assault. In others words, in this paradigm, silence never equals consent but only the absence of consent.
Dr. Janet Napolitano, the lawyer and former United States Security of Homeland Security who is now President of the University of California, explains why she adopted “Yes Means Yes” on her campus in a recent article published in the Yale Law and Policy Review:
In March of 2014, I issued a new presidential policy against sexual violence and sexual harassment. It ensured UC not only complied with the new requirements of the federal Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act, but also provided the necessary support and training for UC faculty, students, and staff. Crucially, this policy also adopted an affirmative consent standard-and it did so six months before California state law required one. Critics claimed, among other arguments, that affirmative consent standards are unfair to those accused of sexual violence. But UC’s policy language negates those claims—“consent is an affirmative, unambiguous, and conscious decision by each participant to engage in mutually agreed upon sexual activity.” The standard provides greater clarity for both partners than the previous “no means no” standard by requiring lucid, affirmative statements or actions at each step of a sexual encounter in order to ensure consent. Put simply, only yes means yes.
Today, “Yes Means Yes” is not only redefining how many campuses approach sexual assault prevention, but also how many local and regional governments are approaching the issue. Notably, both California and New York State have also recently passed bills making “Yes Means Yes” education a mandatory part of the high school curriculum.
Encourage Victims to Come Forward and Provide Support for those Who Do
As reported in by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault, the vast majority of victims never report their sexual assault to campus police or local law enforcers. The low rate of reporting is the result of many factors, including a lack of understanding about what constitutes sexual assault (e.g., many victims believe that they were not assaulted because they knew their assailant or because the sexual assault took place in a dorm room, apartment or another familiar setting) and fear of re-victimization (e.g., many victims believe that they will be forced to recount their assault and interrogated only to be discredited in the process). As a recent article published by the American Psychological Association emphasizes, the consequences of doubting victims can be devastating:
When people react negatively towards women who have been sexually assaulted, these women tend to feel more severe emotional pain than victims who receive support from their community (including friends, family, church groups) [but if] every individual and the way they choose to respond can potentially have such a negative impact on sexually victimized women, the reverse must be true as well.
Fortunately, educators and school administrators have the power to break the cycle of silence that keeps the majority of sexual assault victims from ever speaking up; they can do this by taking proactive steps to:
- Break the myths surrounding “date rape”: Ensure students know that it is possible to be assaulted by someone who they already know in a familiar setting and even to be assaulted by a intimate partner.
- Publicize reporting protocols: Ensure students know who they can talk to in a safe and confidential context if they ever need to report a sexual assault or rape that has taken place on or off campus.
- Support victims: Encouraging people to come forward without providing other lines of support is simply irresponsible; educators and school administrators can ensure that their institutions offer appropriate support services, such as counseling, for anyone who comes forward to report a sexual assault.
Ensure You have a Title IX Coordinator in a High Ranked Position
In 1972, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was signed into law. Title IX is a comprehensive law that prohibits sex-based discrimination at any federally funded educational institution. Unfortunately, for many years, institutions struggled to interpret and more importantly enforce the law. For this reason, in 2000, a new law was passed to ensure that all educational institutions have someone on staff whose job it is to ensure Title IX regulations are being upheld across the campus. While every college and university must have a Title IX Coordinator, assigning Title IX responsibilities to a high ranking official is also important. A dean, provost or vice president with Title IX responsibilities is more likely to be able enforce Title IX regulations than an unranked staff member, such as someone in human resources of counseling services. Assigning Title IX responsibilities to a high ranking official also sends out a clear message to students, parents and the general public that the college or university is committed to enforcing Title IX regulations and stopping sexual harassment and sexual assault on campus.
Partner with Community Organizations
Neither sexual assault nor sexual assault prevention are new issues. Indeed, at least since the 1970s, community organizations across the United States have been working to support women and men who find themselves victims of sexual assault. For this reason, educators and school administrators are also encouraged to turn to local organizations (e.g., women’s centers and rape crisis centers) for support. A searchable nationwide database of sexual assault prevention and rape crisis centers can be found on the RAINE (Rape Abuse Incest National Network) homepage.
Proactive Steps for Students
From Not Alone and It’s On Us to Carry That Weight and Culture of Respect, there are a growing number of organizations across the United States designed to help students join the struggle sexual assault prevention movement. Among other key steps, these organizations and coalitions, many student-founded and led, emphasize the need to:
Know Your Rights and Responsibilities
It’s important for young women and men alike to know their rights and responsibilities. Educate yourself on consent issues, understand what constitutes rape, date rape, sexual assault and unwanted sexual contact, know where to find resources and support, and talk openly with your partner about these issues.
Move Beyond Being a Bystander
At one point or another, most students witness a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault—usually at a party that has gotten out of control. Bystanders, by definition, are people who don’t intervene, but there is no reason to remain a silent bystander. Trust yourself—if you see something that looks like a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault, try to prevent it. If someone looks like they need help, offer it. If you’re on campus (e.g., in a college dorm), reach out to your resident don or to the campus security or police for assistance. Similarly, if you see someone drop something into another persons’ drink, be proactive and alert them (as reported by the Office on Women’s Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, date rape drugs take many forms, are far more common than one might expect and greatly increase the likelihood that a sexual assault will occur). Of course, moving beyond the bystander position is by no means a small step.
n her research on bystander behavior, Dr. Hoxmeier has discovered that many things stop students from taking action: “Students may be less likely to intervene when they don’t have the skills or confidence to do so; if they perceive their peers to disapprove of their intervene; and if they don’t think their intervention would be helpful to preventing an assault.” However, she further emphasizes that these are “all things that could be changed through health education programming and campaigns.” In other words, moving beyond the bystander position is both about individual confidence and enacting a wider a cultural shift. When our campuses are places where not intervening is see is a taboo (as opposed to the other way around), we’ll know that we have made progress.
Start an Awareness Campaign at Your School or on Your Campus
As demonstrated by Emma Sulkowicz, the Columbia University student who raised awareness about sexual assault on campus by carrying a mattress everywhere she went on campus for an entire year, even one person can make a big difference. Of course, it is always much easier and often more effective to do things collectively. Inspired by Sulkowicz’s protest, Carry That Weight, a nationwide movement of students and activists, is now working to raise awareness about sexual assault on college and university campuses across the United States. But this is just one of the many initiatives. Other organizations, projects and days of awareness designed to combat sexual assault on campus and beyond include:
It’s On Us: It’s on Us is a national organization focusing on sexual assault prevention on campus; for more information, see the It’s on Us toolkit available on the organizations website and take the It’s On Us Pledge to join the fight against sexual violence.
White Ribbon Campaign: Founded and spearheaded by men committed to ending violence against women, the White Ribbon Campaign provides educational resources and workshops to campus organizations, including fraternities and sports organizations, who wish to be part of the solution rather than part of the problem.
Culture of Respect: Culture of Respect is an information portal designed to help support the fight against sexual violence on college and university campuses across the nation.
What to do if you experience unwanted sexual contact of any kind?
While the ultimate goal is to ensure that no one, female or male, ever experiences unwanted sexual contact or sexual assault, the reality is that sexual violence is a common occurrence on campuses across the country. In the event that you experience an assault, don’t remain silent. Speak up, get help and take action. Below is a checklist of steps students should take if they ever experience unwanted sexual contact or assault:
- Get to a safe place as soon as possible and alert an official or ask a trusted friend to alert an official (this could be a resident don or advisor, security person, campus police officer, local police officer or any other official you can reach).
- Get medical treatment at a local clinic or hospital to ensure you are physically okay.
- Talk to someone you trust. Don’t keep the experience to yourself—reach out to someone you trust (a friend, parent, sibling or anyone else who has your back).
- Talk to professional counselor—talking to friends and family is important but sometimes talking a trained professional is important too, especially when you’ve experienced a form of unwanted sexual contact or assault.
- Perhaps, the most important thing to do is to preserve all physical evidence. After all, evidence is key to any investigation. Prior to reporting the crime, do not wash or shower or brush your teeth (although you will want to do this). If you change your clothes, put them in a separate bag as evidence. If the assault happened in your dorm room or apartment, don’t clean or straighten up until the investigation is complete.
What can parents do to ensure their kids are safe on campus?
Choosing great a college or university for one’s child is no easy task and one that typically focuses on factors such as the school’s national and/or international ranking, range of programs and cost. Given the high incidence of sexual assault on campus, however, parents, especially with daughters, are also advised to take safety into account. The following checklist outlines key considerations for parents in the process of selecting an appropriate college or university for their child:
- Reputation: Does the college or university have a safe reputation? Does it have a reputation for being a campus with heavy drinking? Does it have a Greek tradition and if so, what is the reputation of the institution’s fraternities and sororities? Is there any evidence that the college or university or organizations connected to the college or university are taking steps to prevent sexual assault on campus? Finally, bear in mind that a campus with a low incidence of reported sexual assaults may appear safer, low incidence rates can also point to the fact that the campus is simply one where students are not encouraged to report incidents of sexual assault or have no way to report such incidence.
- Campus Policies on Sexual Assault: Does the college or university have any policies on sexual assault and if so, what are the policies? Are the policies pro-active and designed to protect students who are at risk or experience assault, or do they appear to favor the rights of assailants?
- Campus Safety and Location of Student Dorms: Where are the campus dorms located? Are the dorms far from classes and/or social hubs on campus? Is it safe to walk back to one’s dorm at night? Check to see if the college or university has carried out a recent campus safety audit.
- Transportation: Are their safe ways to travel around the campus at night? If the campus is located outside of a city or town, are there ways to travel to and from the nearest city or town at all times of the day? Does the campus offer a shuttle service or provide taxi chits to students who need get back to campus from off campus locations after hours (e.g., when regular bus are infrequent or unavailable)?
- Title IV Coordinator: Does the campus have a Title IX Coordinator and are they in a high-ranking position? Notably, often but not always, the decision to give Title IX responsibilities to a high ranking official, such as a dean, provost or vice president, reflects the institution’s commitment to ensuring Title IX regulations are enforced.
What can men do to help prevent campus sexual violence?
For too long, sexual assault was seen as a women’s issue. In the education system, this meant that a minority of female students, educators and administrators, often working with limited resources, were left to take a leading role in the struggle to prevent sexual assault. Today, there’s a growing awareness that men also need to play a major role in sexual assault prevention on and off campus. Indeed, since the majority of sexual assaults involve female victims and male assailants, it is critical for men to step up both by changing their own behaviors and by serving as role models for other men.
Dr. Berkowitz, who has over twenty-five years of experience working on college and university campuses as a trainer, psychologist and educator and founded one of the first rape prevention programs for men in the United States, is committed to mobilizing men of all ages in the struggle to end violence against women. As Dr. Berkowitz emphasizes, “Ending violence against women has always been seen as the province of women: first because all the original leaders on these issues were women;
second, because women were skeptical about men’s involvement, and third; because men did not step up to the plate to be part of the work. But seeing violence prevention as only the responsibility of women is an example of thinking that perpetuates the problem.”[i]
Over the past decade, Dr. Berkowitz has become increasingly interested in using what he describes as Social Norms Theory to understand and change men’s bystander behavior with regards to sexual assault. Notably, Dr. Berkowitz’s research reveals that men tend to underestimated other men’s willingness to step up and stop sexual assaults when they see them occurring and that this alone—men’s feeling that other men won’t approve of their preventative actions—is the primary obstacle men need to overcome. In short, according to Dr. Berkowitz, a critical step in preventing sexual violence against women is to help men realize that other men share their desire to prevent sexual violence and will support their actions if and when they need to intervene. As Dr. Berkowitz reports in his 2015 co-authored study, other men’s attitudes are essential because most men are more likely to be influenced by other men: “It has been shown that males are more likely to influence other males’ attitudes around violence than are females.” However, he emphasizes that there is a great deal of work yet to be done:
The research is clear that the greatest influence on men in terms of coercive behavior is what we call “perceptions of peer support.” In other words, if I am inclined to take advantage of a women, I am more likely to do it if I think that my friends would be okay with it, and less likely to do it if I think that my friends would disapprove. This makes visible the fact that culture of the majority of men who disapprove is an important prevention strategy. While most men think that most men don’t disapprove, most in fact do disapprove of coercive behavior and inappropriate language. This is a misperception—there is a silent majority that disapproves but that thinks that it is a minority while at the same time the minority, which is problematic and part of the problem, thinks of itself as a majority.
Dr. Berkowitz further emphasizes, “The fact that most men don’t assault and are uncomfortable with those who do, coupled with the fact that norms are misperceived, indicates that sexual assault prevention should include both norms correction and bystander intervention.”[iv]
Again, there’s a strong indication that changing men’s misperceptions about sexual assault needs to start early and is contingent on having strong male role models speaking up against sexual violence. Men Against Violence Against Women also emphasizes that for boys and young men to step up, they need to have more positive role models: “Too many young boys do not have positive role models to teach them that men don’t hurt women and that violence doesn’t equal strength. We need get actively involved in helping the boys today become the men we want them to be, through example and mentoring.” This is also precisely the point President Obama sought to convey at his 2014 press conference launching the Not Alone report:
We’ve got to keep teaching young men in particular to show women the respect they deserve and to recognize sexual violence and be outraged by it, and to do their part to stop it from happening in the first place. During our discussion earlier today, we talked about I want every young man in America to feel some strong peer pressure in terms of how they are supposed to behave and treat women. And that starts before they get to college.
The problem of campus sexual assault may appear difficult to grapple with, but as Dr. Hoxmeier emphasizes, there is at least some indication that we are making progress. Reflecting on her own research and education on bystander behavior, she admits, “Several years ago, I would talk about ‘bystander behavior’ to students, colleagues, and peers, I was met with blank faces. Now, ‘bystander intervention’ is a familiar term. More people on and off campuses are talking about the role of the bystander in sexual assault prevention.” She also emphasizes that while student efforts to address sexual assault on campus are important, students can’t prevent sexual assault alone. They need the support of educators and administrators—the people empowered to make and enforce campus policies—and today, she sees more campuses than ever before bringing on experts in the field to lead programming and policy development.
“We absolutely need our students and health educators to make the strides necessary to reduce sexual assault. But, at the forefront of sexual assault prevention, we need professionals with training specifically in developing, implementing, and evaluating programs and advocating for policy changes based on the evidence.” Dr.Hoxmeier
Students, educators and school administrators are not alone in the fight to end sexual assault—there are many organizations and resources available to support their efforts, including those listed below:
- David Cantor et al., Campus Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct, Report prepared for the American Association of Universities, September 2015.
- Dr. Jill Hoxmeier, Interview with Cait Etherington, September 2015.
- Dr. Alan Berkowitz, Interview with Cait Etherington, September 2015.
- Dr. Kristen N. Jozkowski, “Beyond the Dyad: An Assessment of Sexual Assault Prevention Education Focused on Social Determinants of Sexual Assault Among College Students,” Violence Against Women (2015), 848-874.
- Dr. Janet Napolitano, “‘Only Yes Means Yes’: An Essay on University Policies Regarding Sexual Violence and Sexual Assault,” Yale Law & Policy Review (2015), 387-402.
- Marie Skanis, “The power of individual responses to victims of sexual assault: Victims often feel criticized, judged or silenced as a result of reporting their victimization,” In the Public Interest, American Psychology Association Website (June 2014), http://www.apa.org/pi/about/newsletter/ 2014/06/sexual-assault.aspx
- Dr. Jill Hoxmeier, Interview with Cait Etherington, September 2015.
- Alan Berkowitz, “ An Interview with Alan Berkowitz on Men’s Role in Ending Violence Against Women,” Center for Leadership for Women (2005).
- Jacqueline Deitch-Stackhouse, Kristin Kenneavy, Richard Thayer, Alan Berkowitz and Janine Mascar, “The Influence of Social Norms on Advancement Through Bystander Stages for Preventing Interpersonal Violence,” Violence Against Women (2015), 1284-1307.
- Dr. Alan Berkowitz, Interview with Cait Etherington, September 2015.
- Dr. Jill Hoxmeier, Interview with Cait Etherington, September 2015.